In addition to a CDL, you might need a special endorsement if you're:
- P1 and P2: Driving vehicles carrying 16 or more people including you, as the driver.
- T: Pulling double or triple trailers.
- N: Driving tank vehicles carrying liquids or liquid gases in portable or fixed tanks. Not required for portable tanks with a rated capacity under 1,000 gallons.
- H: Carrying hazardous materials that require the vehicle to be marked with a placard.
- X: Carrying hazardous materials in tanks (this is a combination of the N and H endorsements).
- K: Driving vehicles with air brakes.
All of these will require specific tests, and more information on endorsements can be found in the Commercial Driver Guide.
Federal regulations require a background check and fingerprinting for an initial, renewed, or transferred hazmat endorsement. This will cost you about $100.
- Air brakes: You must pass a written test and skills test (in a vehicle with air brakes) to obtain a CDL without an air brake restriction. This allows you to drive vehicles with air brakes.
- Age: You need only be 18 years old to drive a commercial vehicle within Washington. However, you have to be 21 or older before you can operate commercial vehicles between states.
- CDIP: You are not authorized to operate any commercial vehicle classified or placarded for hazardous materials if you hold a commercial driver instruction permit.
In order to obtain a CDL, you have to prove you know a little something about operating a commercial vehicle by taking both a written knowledge test and an on-road skills test. Call your local
Licensing Services Office to make sure they provide the tests, since some do not.
If you have a valid CDL from another state, you do not have to take the CDL tests except to maintain a hazmat endorsement, upgrade your license class, add additional endorsements, or remove restrictions from your CDL. You'll have to give up your prior state's CDL when you get a Washington commercial license.
The written knowledge tests are based on the information contained in the Commercial Driver Guide. You can test your preparedness by taking practice tests online. Once you pass this test, you may receive a CDIP so you can practice behind the wheel of a commercial vehicle.
The on-road skills test takes about 90 minutes. You'll be evaluated based on your pretrip inspection of the vehicle, your road (driving) test, and your ability to execute basic maneuvers like backing up. You'll need to provide the vehicle, and it must be the same class as you are being licensed for. Test scores are valid for one year from the date of the test.
While you might be able to pass the knowledge test simply by studying the manual, you'll need professional driver training to do well on the skills test.
The following fees are in addition to what you paid to get your basic driver's license:
- Commercial driver instruction permit: $10
- Skills test: $75 maximum per attempt
- Commercial driver's license: $30
If you do not meet Washington's medical standards in accordance with state and federal regulations, you might be eligible for a waiver.
Medical waivers are issued only to CDL holders, so when applying for the waiver you are required to have an active CDL record already on file. You'll then need to submit the following forms and information:
- Obtain a qualified medical examiner's signature verifying the condition is likely to remain stable for the duration of the medical waiver.
You can mail the completed forms to the below address or fax them to (360) 570-4915. If you have questions, call (360) 902-3859. It will take five to seven business days to process your application.
- CDL Medical Waiver Program
If you are an interstate driver, then medical waivers are processed by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). For information, contact:
- Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration
For additional information, call (360) 753-9875.
Those carrying commercial driver's licenses are held to a higher standard than ordinary drivers. This is true even when you're off duty and driving in your own car. Be aware of the following regulations:
- Drugs and alcohol: If you test positive for drugs or alcohol while driving a commercial vehicle, you will be disqualified to drive such vehicles and your CDL will not be reinstated until you have proof that you've completed a drug or alcohol education or treatment program.
- Traffic violations: If you are convicted of two serious traffic violations within three years while operating either your personal vehicle or a commercial vehicle, you will lose your license for 60 days. Three violations gets you a 120-day suspension.
- Other ways to lose your CDL:
- Leaving the scene of an accident
- Using a motor vehicle in the commission of a felony
- Refusing to take a blood alcohol test
- Driving a commercial motor vehicle when your CDL is revoked, suspended, canceled, or disqualified
- Causing a fatality through negligent operation of a commercial motor vehicle
If convicted of any of the above offenses while operating a vehicle placarded for hazardous materials, you'll lose your CDL for three years. If there's a second offense, whether the same or different, you could lose your CDL for life. If you use a commercial vehicle in the making, selling, or distribution of drugs, you will never be entitled to a CDL again.
You are required to notify your employer if your license is suspended, revoked, or canceled or if you are disqualified from operating a commercial vehicle.
Out-of-state tickets count in Washington. If you're convicted of a traffic violation in another state, notify the Department of Licensing in writing within 30 days of the conviction at this address:
- Olympia, Washington 98507-9030
To reinstate a suspension or revocation of your personal driving privilege, you must file proof of financial responsibility with the Department of Licensing.
For more information about getting a commercial driver's license in Washington, visit the Department of Licensing's CDL page.
The Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1986 was designed to improve highway safety. Its purpose was to ensure that drivers of commercial vehicles are qualified to drive them, and to remove unsafe drivers from the highways. The Act didn't require federal driver licensing?states still license commercial drivers?but it established minimum standards that states must meet when issuing commercial driver's licenses (CDLs). It required states to upgrade their existing programs to follow the new federal standards.
Before the Act was passed, many commercial vehicle drivers operated vehicles they were not properly trained on or qualified to drive. Even in states that had separate license classes, drivers were not necessarily tested in the types of vehicles they would be driving. States must now test commercial drivers according to federal standards, to ensure that drivers know how to operate the trucks or buses they intend to drive.
The Act also made it illegal to have more than one driver's license. You can hold a regular or commercial driver's license, but not both. You can have one license from the state you reside in, but not from any other states. In the past, bad drivers could more easily hide their driving histories by getting several licenses. Today, all the states are connected to a national database to check driver histories.
To be eligible for a CDL, you must have a clean driving record. Federal regulations require you to pass a physical exam every two years. To operate a commercial motor vehicle in interstate commerce, you must be at least 21. Many states allow those as young as 18 to drive commercial vehicles within the state. You must be able to read and speak English well enough to read road signs, prepare reports, and communicate with the public and with law enforcement.
The Act established three separate classes of commercial driver's licenses. Every state issues licenses in these categories:
- Class A: Any combination of vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating (GWVR) of 26,001 or more pounds, provided the GVWR of the vehicle(s) being towed is in excess of 10,000 pounds.
- Class B: Any single vehicle with a GVWR of 26,001 or more pounds, or any such vehicle towing a vehicle not in excess of 10,000 pounds GVWR.
- Class C: Any single vehicle, or combination of vehicles, that does not meet the definition of Class A or Class B, but is either designed to transport 16 or more passengers, including the driver, or is placarded for hazardous materials.
Many states make exceptions for farm vehicles, snow removal vehicles, fire and emergency vehicles, and some military vehicles.
To be licensed for certain types of commercial vehicles, extra testing is required. If you pass, you will receive an endorsement on your CDL. These are the five endorsements that you can apply for. Each requires between one and five knowledge (written) tests, and two require driving (skills) tests.
- T?Double/Triple Trailers (knowledge test only)
- P?Passenger (knowledge and skills tests)
- N?Tank Vehicle (knowledge test only)
- H?Hazardous Materials (knowledge test only)
- S?School Buses (knowledge and skills tests)
In the interest of public safety on the highways, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) regulations require interstate commercial drivers to be medically fit to operate their vehicles safely and competently. You are required to have a physical exam and carry a U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) medical certificate if:
- You operate a motor vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) or gross combination weight rating (GCWR) or gross vehicle weight (GVW) or gross combination weight (GCW) of 4,536 kilograms (10,001 pounds) or more in interstate commerce.
- You operate a motor vehicle designed or used to transport more than 15 passengers, including the driver, in interstate commerce.
- You operate a motor vehicle designed or used to transport between nine and 15 passengers, for direct compensation, beyond 75 air miles from your regular work-reporting location, in interstate commerce.
- You transport hazardous materials in quantities requiring placards, in interstate commerce.
You must carry a current copy of your medical examination certificate with you when you drive. Residents of Mexico or Canada who drive in the United States can be certified by doctors in their countries, provided they meet the U.S. requirements.
There are no federal standards in place for on-the-road commercial driver training. The government only requires that you take and pass your CDL knowledge (written) and skills (driving) tests. Longer-combination-vehicle (LCV) drivers must receive training in driver wellness, driver qualifications, hours of service, and whistleblower protection.
Your state's commercial driver's manual is a good place to learn basic information, but you will need to be professionally trained to drive a commercial motor vehicle.
In order to pass your driving skills tests, you will need to learn how to inspect vehicles before driving, learn how to couple and uncouple tractors and trailers, and have plenty of practice driving. This includes driving in different conditions and on different road surfaces, turning, parking, backing up, and braking.
Many motor carriers train their employees, while other drivers take courses at private driving schools, vocational or technical schools, and community colleges. Individual states often approve or certify training courses. The Professional Truck Driver Institute (PTDI) has set minimum standards for training curriculums and certifies driver training courses that meet industry and Federal Highway Administration (FHA) guidelines. Many employers require their drivers to take PTDI-approved training.
Some states may specify minimum training guidelines. Check with your state's motor vehicles department to see if there are minimum training requirements to get your CDL.
Under the USA PATRIOT Act, commercial drivers transporting hazardous materials (hazmat) must pass a background records check and be fingerprinted. The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) is responsible for conducting the background checks for all commercial drivers with hazmat endorsements or who want to add hazmat endorsements to their licenses. The TSA developed this program to carry out the USA PATRIOT Act mandate and protect citizens from the potential threat of terrorists using hazmat cargo. The requirement is a result of the USA PATRIOT Act (Public Law 107-56, Section 1012) and the Safe Explosives Act (Public Law 107-296, Section 1121-1123), ARS ?¦sect 28-3103(A)(2), and 49 CFR 1572.
If the TSA disqualifies you because of your background, you can appeal their finding or seek a waiver. However, if you are found guilty of a disqualifying crime, you must declare any disqualifying conditions and surrender your hazmat endorsement (if you already have it) to your state's department of motor vehicles or other licensing agency.
The TSA charges the following nonrefundable fees for background checks:
- Information collection fee: $38
- Threat assessment fee: $34
According to the TSA, background checks take between one and eight weeks to complete. You will be notified by mail whether you are approved. If you are approved, you can then go to your state's licensing authority (usually the department of motor vehicles) to complete your application process. If you are denied, you can appeal or seek a waiver.
According to the FMCSA, hazmat endorsements must be renewed at least every five years. However, your state might require renewal more often. You will need a background check each time you renew your hazmat endorsement. You must arrange for the background check no less than 30 days before the expiration of your current approval, or your CDL may be cancelled.
Conviction of any of the following crimes will disqualify you from being eligible for a hazmat endorsement:
- Assault with intent to murder
- Kidnapping or hostage-taking
- Rape or aggravated sexual abuse
- RICO (Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act) violations
- Unlawful possession, use, sale, distribution, or manufacture of an explosive device, firearm, or other weapon
- Distribution of, intent to distribute, possession, or importation of a controlled substance
- Dishonesty, fraud, or misrepresentation, including identity fraud
- Crimes involving a severe transportation security incident
- Improper transportation of a hazardous material
- Conspiracy or attempt to commit any of these crimes